From Biolk483


  • cofactors --> help with catalysis
    • most are organic ("coenzymes") --> zinc is NOT organic
  • holoenzyme --> enzyme + cofactors

9 Types of Coenzymes

1) Pyridoxal Phosphate

  • aspartate transaminase --> trans-schiffization (?)

2) Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD) --> involved in redox reactions

  • functions in the complementary reduction reaction of an oxidation reaction
  • also functions in the oxidation of alcohol

3) Flavin Mononucleotide (Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide="FAD")

  • vitamin B2
  • involved in redox reactions
  • assists succinate dehydrogenase turn succinate into fumarate

4) Thiamine

  • vitamin B1
  • allows reactions to start
  • connects glycolysis to kreb cycle
  • has an acidic carbon which is very rare

5) Coenzyme A

  • vitamin B3
  • has sulfur group and an ADP
  • ex. acetyl CoA

6) Biotin

  • involved in carboxylation reactions (ex. pyruvate --> oxaloacetate)

7) S-Adenocyl Methionine

  • methylating agent (methylates phospholipids)

8) tetrahydrofolate (folic acid)

  • involved in 1 carbon reactions
  • not really all that important... (that's what he said!)

9) Cobalamine

  • vitamin B12
  • involved in complex rearrangements
  • he said this wasn't super important either...

((I'm sorry if there are any mistakes!! This is my first time uploading any notes to this site, and I'm having issues. I just wanted to help some people out because these notes have definitely helped me study for the first exam!!))

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