Netherlands

From Kaiserreich

Koninkrijk der Nederlanden
Kingdom of the Netherlands
125px-Flag_of_the_Netherlands.svg.png 85px-Coat_of_Arms_of_the_Netherlands.svg.png


Flag and Coat of Arms of Netherlands

Motto
Ik zal handhaven (I shall stand fast)
Anthem
Het Wilhelmus
netherlands.png
Official Languages Dutch
Capital Amsterdam
Head of State Queen Wilhelmina
Head of Government Hendricus Colijn
Establishment
  - Indipendence from the Spanish Empire
      Declared July 26 1581
      Recognized January 30 1648
Government Parliamentary Monarchy
Currency Dutch guilder
Area 41 526 km²
  with colonies 2 025 780 km²
Population About 8 millions

Netherlands is a country in Central Europe. It borders Germany to the east and Flanders-Wallonia to the west. It also borders the German and Portoguese colonies in Asia through the Dutch East Indies and the Caribbean Federation and Brazil in South America.

Contents

History

While preserving European neutrality (the struggle against Belgium was declared an internal conflict) the Netherlands faced all the fiercer challenges in their colonies. In 1830 an uprising in Java had to be subdued by force. A war against the Sultanate Ateh, joined by various local princes, erupted on Sumatra in 1873 and could only be ended in 1904. The Cape Province, Ceylon, and the Gold Coast had been lost to Great Britain. In domestic policies an agreement was reached between the crown and the growing liberal movement in 1848. Wilhelm II, under influence by Liberal leader Jan Rudolf Thorbecke, installed a liberal constitution which transformed the country into a parliamentary monarchy. Thorbecke became the first prime minister and fortified the - by the time's standards - modern system of government. Internally, the Netherlands stabilized herself permanently, with only the census based suffrage being a major point of conflict till universal and equal suffrage was introduced in 1917. Only in 1894 a Social Democratic Workers' Party (SDAP) was formed and, unlike her European cousins of the time, it aimed at reforms and not revolutions. Their strict neutrality qualified the Netherlands as host for the great congresses of 1899 and 1905, during which, among other things, the Den Haag Convention with Respect to the Laws and Customs of War on Land was agreed upon. After the country had preserved its neutrality during the Weltkrieg, Netherlands improved its relationships with Germany, becoming a valuable economic partner. However, it remained politically neutral and didn't join Mitteleuropa.

The rising economic problems in Germany, if they extends to the Low Countries, may break an emotional barrier in the heart of the Dutch people. It is possible that the Social Democratic Workers' Party will be invited in the government and implement its loudly proposed Plan for Labour, which includes plans to increase employment, nationalize vital industry and implement a system of unemployment benefits.

Politics

Queen of the Netherlands: Wilhelmina

Minister-President of the Council: Hendricus Colijn

Minister for Foreign Affairs: Frans B. van Blokland

Minister of Finance: Pieter Oud

Ministry of Justice: Josephus H.H. van Schaik

Head of the GS III: Johan W. van Oorschot

Minister of Defence: Adriaan Dijxhoorn

Chief of the Royal Netherlands Army: Izaak Reynders

Chief of the Royal Netherlands Navy: Johannes Furstner

Chief of the Royal Netherlands Air Force: Marius Raaijmakers

Military

Army

The Royal Netherlands Army is quite large for such a small country; it consist of eight infantry divisions (four of them with an artillery brigade) for the defence of the mainland and three infantry divisions located in Batavia for the defence of the Dutch East Indies (and the repression of the occasional rebellion).

Navy and Air Force

While the Royal Netherlands Air Force is basically non-existent, the Royal Netherlands Navy consist of three light cruisers, two destroyers, three submarines and four transport flotilla. Its main purpose is the defence of the Dutch Merchant Marine and the protection of the commerce with the Dutch East Indies and the other colonial possessions.

Foreign Relations

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Dutch East Indies

Good relations with Germany, Kingdom of Spain, National France and Austria.

Unfriendly relations with Commune of France.

Colonial empire

Dutch colonial possessions in America: Dutch Guyana, Dutch Antilles

Dutch colonial possessions in Asia: Dutch East Indies

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